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Kamis, 06 Desember 2012

Beberapa Indeks yang Digunakan untuk Mengukur "Activities Daily Living" (ADL)

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A.       Kenny Self Care Index
Kenny Self Care  merupakan alat wawancara instrumen klinis berbasis mirip dengan indeks Barthel, digunakan untuk menilai fungsi fisik, khususnya untuk perawatan diri dan ambulasi.

Aktifitas yang dinilai
Nilai
Aktifitas di tempat tidur :
a.    Bergeser di bed
b.    Bangun dan duduk

Transfer dalam posisi :
a.    Duduk
b.    Berdiri
c.     Penggunaan toilet

Ambulasi :
a.    Berjalan
b.    Naik turun tangga
c.     Pengguanaan kursi roda

Berpakaian :
a.    Anggota atas dan trunk bagian atas
b.    Anggota bawah dan trunk bagian bawah
c.     Kaki

Higine :
a.    Wajah, rambut, lengan
b.    Trunk
c.     Anggota bawah
d.    Bladder dan bowel

Makan


Skala Penilaian :
0 = Ketergantungan penuh
1 = Perlu bantuan banyak
2 = Perlu bantuan sedang
3 = Perlu bantuan minimal/pengawasan
4 = Mandiri penuh
B.   Physical Self-Maintenance Scale
Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS) mengukur kemampuan pasien untuk melakukan ADL secara independen (mandiri). Ini mengevaluasi tingkat kemandirian dalam melakukan buang hajat, makan, berpakaian, perawatan, pergerakan, dan tugas mandi. Total skor berkisar dari 0 sampai 6. Skor yang lebih tinggi menunjukkan kemandirian yang lebih besar dalam melakukan ADL.

Task
Score
Toileting
1 = Cares for self at the toilet completely, experieces no incontinence
0 = Needs to be remained or needs help in cleaning self, or has rare (weekly at most) accident
0 = Soils or wets while asleep more than once a week
0 = Soils or wets while awake more than once a week
0 = Has no control of bowels or bladder

Feeding
1 = Feeds self without assistance
0 = Feeds self with minor assistance at meal times and /or with special preparation of food, or help in cleaning up after meals
0 = Feeds Self with moderate assistance and is untidy
0 = Requires extensive assistance for all meals
0 = Does not feed self at all and resists efforts of others to help

Dressing
1 = Dresses, undresses, and select clothes from own wardrobe
0 = Dresses and undresses with minor assistance
0 = Needs moderate assistance in dressing or selecting clothes
0 = Needs major assistance in dressing or selecting clothes
0 = Is completely unable to dress self and resists effort of others to help

Grooming (Neadness, Hair, Nails, Hands, Face, Clothing)
1 = Grooms self without assistance and is always neatly dresses and well-groomed
0 = Grooms self adequately and receives occasional minor assistance (e.g, with shaving)
0 = Need moderate and regular assistance or superfision in grooming
0 = Need total grooming care, but can remain well-groomed after help from others
0 = Actively resists all efforts of others to assist with grooming

Physical Ambulation
1 = Goes about grounds or city
0 = Ambulances within residence or about 1-block distance
0 = Ambulances with assistance of the following (check one) :
(  ) Another person
(  ) Railing
(  ) Cane
(  ) Walker
(  ) Wheelchair _____ gets in and out without help
     _____ needs help getting in and out
0 = Sits unsupported in chair or wheelchair, but cannot propel self without help
0 = Is bedridden more than half the time

Bathing
1 = Bathes self (e.g., in tub, in shower, by sponge bath
0 = Bathes self with help in getting in and out of tub
0 = Washes face and hands only, but cannot bathe rest of body
0 = Does not wash self but is cooperative with those who assist
0 = Does not try to wash self and resists efforts to assist

Modified from Lawton MP, Brody EM: Assesment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living, Gerrontologist 9:179-186, 1969.

C.   Activities of Daily Living-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale
ADL-IADL Scale mengukur masalah fungsional dengan ADL dan IADL pada orang dewasa yang lebih tua. Ini mengevaluasi ketergantungan dan kesulitan dengan 18 ADL dan tugas IADL. Total skor berkisar 18-54. Skor yang lebih tinggi menunjukkan ketergantungan yang lebih besar dalam melakukan ADL dan tugas IADL.

Task
Independently and easily
Independently but with some difficulty
Dependently or with supervision
Eating and drinking (ADL)
Washing face and hand (ADL)
Using the toilet (ADL)
Arising from chair (ADL)
Getting in and out of bed (ADL)
Moving inside house (ADL)
Dressing (ADL)
Performing “light” house-cleaning activities (IADL)
Washing oneself completely (ADL)
Moving outdoors on flat ground (ADL)
Preparing dinner (IADL)
Preparing breakfast and lunch (IADL)
Going up and down stairs (ADL)
Making bed (IADL)
Caring for feet and nails (ADL)
Washing and ironing clothes (IADL)
Shopping (IADL)
Performing “heavy” house-cleaning activities (IADL)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Modified from Kempken GIJM, Suurmeijer TPBM: The development of hierarchial polychotomous ADL-IADL Scale for noninstituionalized elders, Gerrontologist 30 (4): 497-502, 1990

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